A smiling man in a wetsuit, mask and snorkel stands in waist deep blue water and holds up eelgrass shoots.
Restoration Success Volunteer Al McKegg collects eelgrass shoots in South Bay, Eastern Shore of Virginia. © Alex Novak/The Nature Conservancy

Stories in Virginia

Marine Habitat Restoration at VVCR

Putting science to work in our coastal bays.

Healthy natural communities can make a difference in people’s lives, especially in places like the Eastern Shore that are vulnerable to rising seas and the more frequent and intense storms associated with climate change.

That’s why we’re riding a wave of restoration at the Volgenau Virginia Coast Reserve.

Large mesh bags filled with oyster shells are arranged in two rows on an exposed restored oyster reef during low tide. A woman wearing chest waders stands at the edge of the reef counting bags.
Future Resilience TNC's Brittany Gonzales counts bags of shell placed by Dickinson College students at the Hillcrest Oyster Sanctuary during an alternative spring break experience, March 2020. © Daniel White/TNC

Oyster Reef Restoration

Oyster restoration has long been a priority for The Nature Conservancy. Oysters filter sediment and algae and remove nitrogen from the water, while their reefs provide nurseries and feeding grounds for rockfish, crabs and other marine life. For generations, oysters have played an important role in Virginia’s economy.

Oyster reef restoration also offers a nature-based solution for adapting to climate change. Reefs can take the punch out of storm waves and help slow the rate of erosion along marsh edges.

TNC worked with the Virginia Marine Resources Commission in 2015 to build two oyster reefs at Man and Boy Marsh. Three additional reefs were constructed in 2016 at two sites at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge that suffered serious damage from Hurricane Sandy. These projects were funded by both the U.S. Department of Interior and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation through funds established to support Hurricane Sandy recovery efforts.

In 2017 we launched a new project with the University of Virginia to build eight experimental reefs to measure their ability to reduce wave action.

A man and woman stand in knee deep water. The woman hands the man a large square concrete oyster castle block.
Coastal Resilience Using oyster castles to build new reefs at Tom's Cove, Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA. © Daniel White/TNC

The reefs at Man and Boy Marsh and Chincoteague NWR are constructed from concrete castle blocks. Fitting the interlocking blocks together may look like child’s play, but each piece weighs 30 pounds!

The castle blocks are placed in 7-foot long arrays that will provide a foundation on which juvenile oysters can attach and build. Living oyster reefs can grow quickly enough to outpace rising seas.

Volunteers play an invaluable role in these efforts, along with partners including the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, and Virginia Marine Resources Commission.

A man in a wet suit floats above a seagrass meadow in shallow water. A fish eye lens has been used, giving a curve to the horizon behind him.
Conservation Success Coastal Scientist Bo Lusk relaxes in an eelgrass meadow. © Alex Novak / TNC


In the early 1930s, a noxious slime mold and the powerful Chesapeake-Potomac Hurricane combined to devastate seagrass meadows in Virginia’s coastal bays. While seagrasses did regenerate in the Chesapeake, they never returned to Virginia's other coastal bays.

As one species—eelgrass (Zostera marina)—collapsed, it created a ripple effect. With the loss of this critical nursery habitat, commercially important bay scallops completely disappeared from Virginia’s waters. Other marine animals—from blue crabs to seahorses and striped bass—became refugees.

A patch of eelgrass was discovered in 1999 in a seaside bay off the Eastern Shore. It may have taken root from seeds that had drifted down from Chincoteague Bay. According to Dr. Robert "JJ" Orth from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), "That’s when the light went on that conditions there might be ripe for recovery, as long as there was a source of seeds."

Bringing Back Eelgrass VVCR Coastal Scientist Bo Lusk describes how we're restoring eelgrass meadows and returning this critical habitat to Virginia's coastal bays.

Each spring since 2008, 40 to 60 volunteers have signed on to boost the now decades-long partnership. Volunteer snorkelers collect reproductive shoots containing ripe seeds from the underwater plants. The shoots are measured into water tanks where the seeds are then cured, separated, and prepared for fall planting.

Starting from the mere remnant Orth located nearby, VIMS and TNC have since broadcast more than 72 million seeds into 600 acres to help accelerate the natural spread of eelgrass, which now covers more than 9,500 acres (and counting!) in South, Spider Crab, Hog Island and Cobb Island bays.

Seagrass beds also have a role to play in mitigating the impacts of climate change. Five acres of eelgrass can soak up enough carbon dioxide to offset driving a car 15,000 miles a year. According to a 2012 study by Florida International University, coastal seagrass can store more than twice as much carbon per square kilometer as terrestrial forests.

And results from the long-term monitoring of Virginia's restored eelgrass published in 2020 indicates that storage capacity increases as the meadows mature. Seagrass plots in place for nine or more years stored, on average, 1.3 times more carbon and 2.2 times more nitrogen than younger plots.

Our work in Virginia's coastal bays is a blueprint for restoring and maintaining healthy ecosystems to safeguard multiple benefits as we move into an uncertain future.

Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William & Mary
Close up view of a scallop shell held up by a hand, with the Atlantic ocean in the background.
Returning Scallops Virginia supported the most productive bay scallop fishery in the United States in 1930, but the scallops disappeared along with the seagrass meadows. © Daniel White / TNC


Virginia supported the most productive bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) fishery in the United States in 1930, but the scallops disappeared along with the seagrass meadows. In 1933, Virginia watermen harvested no bay scallops at all.

But after more than 80 years, the tide may be turning. Along with our partners at VIMS, we’re working to build on our successful eelgrass restoration efforts by returning bay scallops to Virginia waters.

VVCR Coastal Scientist Bo Lusk assisted VIMS in releasing the first test batch of 5,500 juvenile bay scallops on August 4, 2009 in a seagrass meadow in South Bay. Scallops affix themselves to blades of seagrass which provide shelter from strong currents and from predators like crabs and rays.

We have begun working with VIMS on several projects, including an effort to produce and grow scallops from larvae to juvenile size. 3 million of VIMS’ bay scallop larvae are currently being raised in TNC setting tanks. In May 2017, we released 12.3 million bay scallop larvae that were spawned by VIMS and Cherrystone Aquafarms into the eelgrass in South Bay. The hope is to eventually restore a self-sustaining population of bay scallops to Virginia waters.

“One of the most rewarding things about this project to me is that I can take my children—my two little girls—and when we go walking on the beach, looking at shells, and they pick up an old dead scallop shell, they know exactly where it came from,” said Lusk. “It’s neat that scallops aren’t just something that your grandmother told you about. For them it will be something that’s really here, and we’ll see what we can make of it.”


Bo Lusk, Coastal Scientist
email: blusk@tnc.org