four people look at seaweed growing in water
Seaweed Farming in Tanzania Seaweed trainers working with local seaweed farmers, Bi Kombo Rashidi Ali and Time Asaka Kasim, at the Tumbe seaweed pilot site in Pemba. © Roshni Lodhia


Restorative Aquaculture for Nature and Communities

Key Takeaways

  • There is a pressing need to provide food for people within planetary limits—including new approaches that actively restore ecosystem health.
  • A body of research conducted by TNC scientists and partners demonstrates that aquaculture can help restore ocean health, as well as support economic development and food production in coastal communities worldwide—if the right practices are deployed in the right places.
  • A set of six clear priniciples and implementation roadmaps—agreed upon by a cross-functional group of scientists from leading organizations across the globe—now provides guidance to assist industries, governments and communities in developing aquaculture in a manner that actually benefits nature.
  • Spatial analysis work has also identified the regions around the world most suited for restorative aquaculture production. Taken together, this body of information shows how and where to get the most benefit from restorative aquaculture.

The Opportunity for Restorative Aquaculture

It’s a long-held assumption that food production and environmental health are a zero-sum game. After all, food production currently accounts for nearly one-quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions, and 70 and 80 percent of freshwater usage and habitat degradation respectively. The ocean, meanwhile, faces unprecedented perils in the form of overfishing, coastal water pollution, and habitat degradation, including food production through fishing and aquaculture.

There’s no doubt a nature-positive transition is swiftly needed across all our diverse food production systems. But a growing body of evidence is challenging the assumption that increasing food production will inevitably result in the degradation of nature. In fact, it’s possible to produce nutritious food and actively contribute to the recovery of ecosystems at the same time.

Aquaculture is not only the fastest-growing form of food production—it can also be one of the most environmentally efficient ways of producing animal protein. This is especially true for bivalves and seaweed, which are near-zero input forms of farming—their production requires almost no feed, freshwater or land and results in minimal greenhouse gas emissions.

two people tipping oyster shells into the water from a boat
New Hampshire, USA The Nature Conservancy's Brianna Group (left) and Steve Weglarz of Cedar Point Oyster Company add oysters to a restoration reef near Nanny Island as part of the Supporting Oyster Aquaculture and Restoration (SOAR) program. © Jerry and Marcy Monkman/EcoPhotography

This may surprise some, as the industry has historically been associated with localized environmental damage. But a substantial number of peer-reviewed publications now show that shellfish and seaweed farms can actually deliver restorative benefits for ocean health, as well as support economic development and food production in coastal communities worldwide—if the right practices are deployed in the right places.

And as noted in our recent report Foodscapes: Toward Food System Transition, an expansion of restorative aquaculture and improved management of wild fisheries could sustainably increase food from sea by 36-74 percent by 2050, making aquaculture a key part of transitioning toward a food system that works with nature.

Defining Principles

With greater attention on regenerative food systems and restorative aquaculture, there is the risk that increased demand could lead to confusion regarding these terms and their intent. An expert working group led by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) has produced the Global Principles of Restorative Aquaculture, a report intended to define restorative aquaculture, provide implementation guidance, establish parameters, and forge a common understanding for this important ocean restoration and food production solution.

What is Restorative Aquaculture?

Restorative aquaculture occurs when commercial or subsistence aquaculture provides direct ecological benefits to the environment, with the potential to generate net-positive environmental outcomes.

A consistent definition and set of global principles—agreed upon by scientists from leading organizations around the world—will drive clarity and support necessary scaling. The definition and guidance in the report, importantly, apply to large and small-scale operations, include freshwater (inland) and marine (coastal and offshore) aquaculture and are not limited in geographic scope.

Download the Report


Drivers and Enablers of Restorative Aquaculture

a circular graphic showing the interaction of socio-economic enablers, drivers, and aquaculture impact or benefit

Local Benefits, Global Scale

Restorative aquaculture may be one of the best opportunities to simultaneously restore ecosystems and provide nutritious food for current and future populations. Nearly all continents and most coastal countries have the potential for restorative aquaculture in marine environments, accounting for sensitivities to local environmental, socio-economic and human health factors. In freshwater environments, solutions like integrated rice-fish farming can help communities achieve greater food production, increasing livelihood for producers while also reducing environmental impacts.

Restorative aquaculture farming provides multiple ecosystem benefits including:

  • Improving water quality through filtration and removing excess nutrients;
  • Creating structured habitats for fish and invertebrates, which provides refuge, forage and stress reduction in the changing seas; and 
  • Sequestering carbon via seaweed production and products, expanding the benefits seen in wild kelp forests.

a graphic showing the benefits of restorative shellfish and seaweed farms

In most countries, there is significant potential for a restorative aquaculture industry to be expanded, creating valuable opportunities to improve ocean health while generating economic returns. Nearly 50 million square kilometers of ocean have been found to be environmentally suitable to farm with restorative aquaculture techniques—that’s roughly five times the size of China. And that’s just the new opportunity—we could see even more benefits to ocean health if existing aquaculture operations are reformed to implement restorative practices.

Previous spatial analysis identified the highest opportunity regions for shellfish cultivation in Oceania, North America and portions of Asia, with the highest opportunities for seaweed cultivation in Europe, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. Building on established studies on the ecosystem benefits provided by aquaculture, the Global Principles for Restorative Aquaculture report—which includes roadmaps for implementation—adds to this important body of work.

Critically, the conservation benefits of this industry can also be more cost-effective than many other approaches. Restoring a single acre of oyster reef may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars when considering the full costs of the project. But deploying aquaculture farms which adhere to restorative practices can provide some of the same benefits to the environment without requiring significant public or philanthropic investment—it’s an environmental solution that generates revenue.

Mariko Wallen and Louis Godfrey tend to the seaweed on their farm in Placencia, Belize. This farm grows two species: Eucheuma (for consumption) and Gracilaria (used for skin treatments and cosmetics). The farm is part of a program sponsored by TNC to bring seaweed aquaculture to the area in cooperation with the Placencia Fishermen Cooperative.
Sowing in the Seas Mariko Wallen and Louis Godfrey tend to the seaweed on their farm in Placencia, Belize. The farm is part of a program sponsored by TNC to bring seaweed aquaculture to the area in cooperation with the Placencia Fishermen Cooperative. © Randy Olson

Restorative aquaculture has the potential to go a step beyond impact reduction and actually improve marine environments.

Guiding Industry Growth, for the Benefit of All

Communities around the world are currently realizing the multiple benefits of restorative aquaculture. In Qindao Lake, China, silver and bighead carp are being farmed in a manner that supports the lake’s water quality. In Belize, fishers in Placencia are developing new seaweed farms as an alternative livelihood approach. The farms are showing benefits to flora and fauna of the surrounding environment, including providing habitat for commercially important conch and lobster species that are now depleted in the wild. In the United States, oyster farming in the Chesapeake Bay has been formally recognized as a water quality improvement strategy to help meet nitrogen management goals of the nation’s largest estuary.

But the current examples are dwarfed by the scale of the opportunity. At a large enough scale, restorative aquaculture could create significant economic opportunities for coastal communities around the world, expanding the $264 billion in revenue and employment opportunities for 20 million people that the aquaculture sector already provides.

This integrated body of information—science, mapping, principles, and on-the-ground case studies—can help governments, international development organizations and investors as they prioritize policy initiatives, spending and business planning for optimal economic, social and environmental returns. The involvement of each of these stakeholders will be critical to deploying restorative aquaculture at a meaningful scale.

With a global population set to reach 10 billion by 2050, we have to find ways to produce more food and create more jobs with less environmental impact. Restorative aquaculture is one of the best ways we have to realize a future where people and nature thrive together.


  • Global Principles of Restorative Aquaculture


    Restorative aquaculture can help restore ocean health, as well as support economic development and food production.

  • Global Restorative Aquaculture: Spatial Analysis

    Interactive Map

    An interactive map showing where marine aquaculture can benefit nature and people.

  • Global Habitat Value of Restorative Aquaculture


    A report from TNC demonstrates a growing opportunity to create a food system with environmental benefits.

  • Aquaculture Contributions to Ecosystem Services


    Exploring the Potential for Marine Aquaculture to Contribute to Ecosystem Services