Water Resources Development Act
Modernizing America’s Water Management Strategies
The next Water Resources Development Act is an opportunity for Congress to strengthen communities using nature-based solutions proven to lessen flood impacts, improve natural areas and support the economy.
Water Resources Development Act of 2020
Congress should use the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 2020 to modernize water resources management at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps). Through nature-based approaches and cost-effective strategies, the Corps can deliver projects that protect America’s natural resources, support economic and recreational opportunities and enhance community resilience.
The Nature Conservancy (TNC), which has partnered extensively with the Corps to advance policies and projects that can effectively and efficiently deliver environmental benefits while meeting the needs of people, urges Congress to invest in water infrastructure accordingly.
Nature-Based Solutions at the Corps
WRDA 2016 was a landmark success for advancing natural infrastructure within the Corps. For the first time, Congress directed the Corps to consider natural and nature-based features, alone or in combination with gray infrastructure, when studying the feasibility of flood risk management, storm damage reduction and ecosystem restoration projects. WRDA 2018 reinforced Congress’ belief that the Corps should consider natural infrastructure during project design.
While the Corps has a clear obligation to consider natural infrastructure during project design, Congress still needs to take steps to promote greater use of natural infrastructure. Recent studies demonstrate that nature—if fully utilized by the Corps and local communities—has the potential to help address water infrastructure challenges. For example, coastal wetlands prevented more than $625 million in property damages during Hurricane Sandy and reduced property damages throughout the Northeast by 10% on average.
In WRDA 2020, Congress should facilitate natural infrastructure projects to more fully realize the range and magnitude of benefits associated with natural and nature-based solutions.
WRDA 2020: Policy Recommendations
TNC recommends that Congress do the following in WRDA 2020:
Advance natural infrastructure solutions. Oversee the Corps’ implementation of natural infrastructure requirements from previous WRDA legislation, including by studying instances of successful use of natural infrastructure in flood control and ecosystem restoration projects.
Improve partnering options with the Corps. Modify project partnership agreements to fairly recognize the value of materials donated by local sponsors, give local sponsors certainty on their operations and maintenance responsibility and allow a more shared approach to liability with the Corps. Many good projects are not being pursued because of the difficulty of signing partnership agreements with the Corps.
Enhance natural disaster response. Increase pre-disaster preparedness at the Corps by using its emergency response program to rebuild better infrastructure following disasters. The Corps should make its repetitive loss data publicly available and identify—prior to a disaster—flood control works that can be rebuilt with local sponsors’ support to provide a greater level of flood protection and additional benefits.
WRDA 2020: Project Recommendations
Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study – Brandon Road
While creation of the Chicago Area Waterway System opened the Chicago area to the economic benefits of barge traffic, it had the unintended consequence of allowing aquatic invasive species (AIS) to pass freely in both directions between the Mississippi River and Great Lakes basins. Twenty-nine invasive species already live in the Great Lakes, and 10 invasive species, including four species of Asian carp, live in the Mississippi River. The Corps released a plan—transmitted to Congress in a chief’s report—to reduce the risk of AIS moving from the Mississippi River through the Brandon Road Lock and Dam to the Great Lakes. The plan does not prevent the spread of AIS in the other direction—from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River. If Congress authorizes construction of the Brandon Road project, it should require the Corps to focus on studying and testing new solutions to prevent movement of AIS between basins and require the Corps to implement an adaptive management program that will incorporate future solutions to increase the efficacy of blocking AIS transfer.
Meramec River Basin Ecosystem Restoration Construction Authority
The Meramec River basin of central Missouri is among the most biologically significant river basins in mid-continental North America, with diverse and rare aquatic and terrestrial species, including six species of endangered mussels. The Corps has completed an ecosystem restoration feasibility study of critical restoration projects within the Meramec basin. Supported by TNC, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources proposed construction authority for the recommended ecosystem restoration plan to restore and maintain the ecological importance of the Meramec River and its tributaries and benefit water quality, the economy and recreation. The Corps included the proposal in its section 7001 report to Congress for 2019.