Stories in California

Let's Stop Megafires Before They Start

Invest in Forest Restoration and Fire Resilient Communities

A row of trees on fire in silhouette with smoke rising into a dark red sky.
Let’s stop making history Fires in California continue to set new records for the “largest,” “most damaging,” “worst air quality” and sadly, the “most deadly” we’ve ever seen. © Christian Roberts-Olsen

Fires in California continue to set new records for the “largest,” “most damaging,” “worst air quality,” and “most costly” we’ve ever seen.

The problem

What’s causing this dramatic turn for the worse? It’s driven by many factors including extreme weather, past land use decisions and a century of forest and wildfire mismanagement, leaving many communities and natural lands a spark away from catastrophe.

Some of the factors that shape the frequency and severity of wildfire in California, like drought, record high temperatures and strong winds are beyond our control and in many cases, exacerbated by a changing climate. Other factors, such as how we manage our fire-adapted conifer forests, where we build homes and how we prepare and protect our communities are within our control.

It is important to note that the causes and consequences of this extreme fire pattern vary across ecosystems in California. There is no one-size-fits-all approach. Solutions in the forested Sierra Nevada and other fire-prone forests look very different from those in the shrub-dominated California coast and foothills. With this in mind, we must move quickly and strategically to act where we can, and we must tailor our strategies to the different environments and the challenges they face.

Let’s Stop Making History California's megafire trend continues to worsen, threatening the lives of people and communities across California and the health of the forests we rely on for resources like clean water and air. Let’s stop making history by funding forest restoration and fire resilient communities.


While we can’t stop this problem overnight, there are two things we need to invest in immediately to better protect people and nature in the face of wildfire: forest restoration and fire resilient communities.  

Science shows that forest restoration - controlled burns and ecological thinning to remove small trees and brush that ignite fire - delivers a one-two punch, reducing the risk of megafires in fire-adapted conifer forests, like the Sierra, while allowing fire to be safely reintroduced with many ecological benefits.

It is also critical that we make all communities in fire-prone regions more resilient by taking measures to make homes less flammable, improving response and evacuation plans, giving homeowners in risky places the option to move and building new communities in the right places.


Our just-released paper, Wildfires and Forest Resilience: the case for ecological forestry in the Sierra Nevada, cites over 130 scientific studies to make the scientific case for ecological forestry as the best solution to combat megafires in California’s fire-adapted conifer forests. Our major findings are:

  • Ecological thinning, combined with controlled burns and managed wildfires, can significantly reduce the risk of megafires in fire-adapted conifer forests and create healthier forests that are more resilient to fire, drought and climate change, with significant benefits for air quality, water quality, carbon storage and wildlife habitat.

  • Addressing the megafire threat in forests will require applying ecological forestry at a landscape scale, like our French Meadows project and the Tahoe-Central Sierra Initiative in the northern Sierra.


In the fire-adapted forests of the Sierra Nevada and other parts of the state (such as the southern Cascades around Mt. Lassen and the Klamath-Siskiyou region of northern California), decades of aggressive fire suppression following intensive logging that removed many of the large, fire-resistant trees have left these forests overly dense. A healthy forest would have more frequent, less intense fires to clear small trees and brush. By suppressing these fires, small trees and brush become the fuel that can turn fires into megafires. 

Two series of images that illustrate how an overgrown forest where fire has been suppressed will burn hotter and sustain more damage than a well-managed forest.
Ecologically Managed Forests By thinning the forest understory, we can safely reintroduce fire as a restorative process. Fire suppressed forest on left. Ecologically thinned forest on right. © TNC

Through the practice of ecological thinning, we can promote healthier forests and create conditions under which controlled and managed fire can be safe and effective. Ecological thinning does not mean clearcutting, old-growth forest logging or extensive salvage logging after fires. It is explicitly focused on protecting the oldest trees and creating a diverse mosaic of natural features that are essential for forest diversity and regeneration.

Forest restoration plays an important role in protecting the many critical values conifer forests provide for people and nature, such as clean water (60% of California’s clean water supply comes from Sierra Nevada forests), clean air, carbon storage, recreation and wildlife habitat. These values are increasingly threatened by megafires. By protecting our forests from extreme fire, we are protecting the forests’ ability to store carbon over the long term, an important tool in our fight against climate change. We are also protecting important wildlife species like the California spotted owl from critical habitat loss.

Two owls perched on a branch looking at the camera.
California spotted owl California spotted owl parent and chick. Spotted owl populations are increasingly threatened by high severity fires that can eliminate or degrade their habitat. © Danny Hofstadter

It creates a vicious cycle: When forest restoration is put on hold, the risk of megafires increases. When megafires happen, it reduces the funds available to better manage our forests.

Sierra Nevada Program Director with The Nature Conservancy
Curbing Megafires How making our forests healthy can reduce the threat of megafires.


In the face of megafires, we have a responsibility to invest in and create fire resilient communities. To do this, we must thoughtfully consider where we build new homes for California’s ever-growing population, as well as how we adapt our existing communities to deal with the escalating threat of fires.

This is particularly true in the coastal and foothill regions of central and southern California, where many people live within and next to highly flammable shrublands. In these areas, vegetation management and controlled burns may make matters worse. Our best defense in these areas is a robust investment in community protection measures focused on preventing human-caused ignitions and creating fire resilient communities.

For communities that have already been established in high-risk fire areas, we must make those homes and communities more resilient to fire through fire-safe building retrofit incentives, science-based defensible space programs, evacuation planning and prevention of human-caused  ignitions. Developing updated Disaster Preparedness Plans and investing in early detection and fire suppression systems in the most dangerous weather conditions can also further protect communities.

We also need to rethink the land-use policies that put people in harm’s way. We need new policies that provide incentives to build in safe and sustainable locations. We also must ask hard questions in the face of these fires - such as how do we respond to increasing risks from climate change factors including fire, floods and rising sea levels? We need new solutions to incentivize building in locations that enhance public safety and make our communities more resilient.

In places like the Sierra Nevada, resilient communities require smart development planning AND healthy forest management. In more shrub-dominated landscapes, smart decisions about where and how we build our communities and identifying measures to reduce ignitions can greatly reduce risk to people, making their homes more secure.


TNC is working hard to break the cycle of disastrous megafires in the Sierra Nevada. We us on-the-ground science, education and advocacy to make a difference in the geographies that need us most and advocate for state policies that:

  • Promote forest restoration and fuels reduction in fire-adapted forests like the Sierra Nevada, through controlled burning and ecological thinning;
  • Take a landscape scale approach to forest restoration by planning and managing for restoration across multiple watersheds and prioritizing restoration in the places and at the scale where it will have the greatest impact;
  • Invest in policies and programs that promote fire resilient communities by directing growth away from high fire risk zones and creating options for communities already in harm's way.
House with a fire raging in the background.
"Glass Fire" The "Glass Fire" burns homes and wildland in the Skyhawk Community in Santa Rosa, California on the night of September 27-28, 2020. © © Jerry Dodrill

Wildfire Resilience Insurance

We know that ecological forest restoration practices make fire-adapted forests healthier and reduce the risk of severe wildfire. But should insurance losses and pricing be lower where ecological forest practices have taken place?

The answer is yes. Working with our global insurance partner Willis Towers Watson, TNC used our French Meadows Restoration Project in the Sierra Nevada (See Case Study #2 below) as a test case to determine whether the risk reduction benefits of ecological forestry could be incorporated into insurance modeling, structuring, and pricing. 

The results were exciting. For the first time, we incorporated ecological forestry into insurance modeling and pricing. Our study quantifies the insurance benefits of ecological forest restoration including  insurance  premium savings for communities and businesses in or near forests.

The insurance savings from ecological forestry can be captured and used to fund or finance forest restoration.  The results also encourage increased investment in ecological forestry practices from both the public and private sector.  

Read our full report and summary here.

Burn crew members spread out through an open forest, setting fire to some of the grass in the understory.
Controlled Burning The Independence Lake Preserve provides critical habitat for the threatened Lahontan cutthroat trout, and the lake provides water for Reno and western Nevada. © Ed Smith/TNC


In the Sierra Nevada, TNC’s science is leading the way in better defining the problems facing our forests and solutions by:

Here are three pilot projects underway in the Sierra Nevada that helped inform our forest restoration recommendations to curb the cycle of megafires.

Prescribed Fire Fly-Along at Independence Lake A prescribed (or controlled) burn is an intentionally-ignited fire contained within a designated area. These small fires are strategically designed by a team of certified fire experts and only occur under the safest conditions.

Case Study #1: Independence Lake Preserve

TNC is using our 2,325 acre Independence Lake Preserve, located in the northern Sierra Nevada near Truckee, as a demonstration site for forest restoration. High-severity wildfire is a significant threat to the water supply, neighboring communities and wildlife that thrive here. Since 2010, TNC has used ecological thinning and controlled burning to reduce wildfire risk and promote healthier, more resilient forests at the preserve.

View from a high overlook looking down at slopes covered in dense forests and a body of water in a valley.
French Meadows Restoration Forest conditions in the French Meadows Project area are unhealthy and at risk of uncharacteristic, high-severity fire. © David Edelson/TNC

Case Study #2:  French Meadows Forest Restoration Project

TNC is partnering with the U.S. Forest Service, Placer County Water Agency, Placer County, the Sierra Nevada Conservancy, American River Conservancy and the Sierra Nevada Research Institute at UC Merced to restore 28,000 acres of forest in the headwaters of the Middle Fork of the American River, just west of Lake Tahoe. We believe this partnership can serve as a model to increase the pace and scale of forest restoration on national forest lands throughout the Sierra. TNC just published a Lessons Learned Paper on behalf of the French Meadows partners summarizing the elements that were key determinants to the success of our partnership and making policy and practice recommendations for future partnerships.

Key elements of the project include:

  • Collaborative management, allowing the project to advance quickly and efficiently

  • Funding from a wide variety of federal, state, local and private sources

  • Shared stewardship to accelerate on-the-ground restoration with TNC helping to direct use of prescribed fire

  • Research on how forest restoration benefits water supply and forest health

  • Innovative planning, including use of state-of-the-art fire behavior modeling

Large trunks of tall, mature trees, with pine needles and some small trees and seedlings in the understory.
Tahoe-Central Sierra The Tahoe-Central Sierra landscape provides unique opportunities to increase the pace and scale of needed forest restoration by building off of innovative partnerships. © TNC

Case Study #3: Tahoe-Central Sierra Initiative

Independence Lake and French Meadows are part of the much larger Tahoe-Central Sierra Initiative (TCSI), covering approximately 2.4 million acres around Lake Tahoe and the central Sierra Nevada. TNC is part of a diverse coalition bringing together innovative approaches to increase the pace and scale of restoration work across this entire region. The TCSI initiative is improving the health and resiliency of forest ecosystems and communities by:

  • Raising federal, state and private funding

  • Using a rigorous planning and analytic process (co-led by TNC) to develop forest restoration approaches that can influence the entire landscape

  • Analyzing the benefits to clean water, clean air, wildlife habitat and other values from implementing the forest restoration scenarios

Under the TCSI, the Conservancy is working with 7 partners to innovate approaches to forest restoration and increase the pace and scale of work over a 2.4 million acre area.
THE POWER OF PARTNERSHIP Under the TCSI, the Conservancy is working with 7 partners to innovate approaches to forest restoration and increase the pace and scale of work over a 2.4 million acre area. © Sierra Nevada Conservancy


  1. MEGAFIRE: a fast-moving, high intensity forest fire that burns a large area, typically 100,000 acres or more

  2. FOREST RESTORATION / ECOLOGICAL FORESTRY: the use of forest thinning in combination with controlled burns, where it is safe and appropriate, to reduce high fuel loads that contribute to megafires

  3. FOREST THINNING: strategically removing smaller trees and brush from conifer forests that fuel megafires

  4. CONTROLLED BURN: an intentionally-ignited fire contained within a designated area. the goal is to remove highly-flammable undergrowth (and thus reduce the risk of megafire) while promoting healthier forest conditions

  5. MANAGED WILDFIRE: lightning-ignited fires that can be safely managed for the benefit of nature while reducing the risk of future megafires

Our work to curb the cycle of megafires is far from over. TNC is uniquely positioned to protect our fire-adapted forests and help communities prepare for climate-exacerbated natural disasters. Let’s stop making history and start fixing the problem.