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Timm Kroeger

Senior Environmental Economist

Arlington, Virginia

Senior Environmental Economist

Timm Kroeger Conservancy scientist Timm Kroeger. © T. Kroeger


Environmental Economics, Conservation, Environmental Science




Dr. Kroeger is the senior environmental economist in The Nature Conservancy’s Global Science department. His work focuses on the measurement and economic valuation of the benefits people derive from nature; the incorporation of these values into cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and social return-on-investment analyses of conservation and environmental quality projects; and the application of incentive-based mechanisms in general, and payment for ecosystem services in particular, to the conservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Before joining The Nature Conservancy in 2009, Timm was an environmental economist with Defenders of Wildlife’s Conservation Economics Program and worked as a consultant on bio-energy issues and black carbon emissions and control options in Asia; human health benefits from reductions in outdoor air pollution in Lima, Peru; the economic aspects of air pollution control measures in major cities throughout Peru and in Guayaquil, Ecuador; and the assessment of potential environmental impacts from a proposed mining operation in northern Peru. 

Timm holds an MA in Economics from the University of Würzburg (Germany) and a Ph.D. in Environmental Studies from the State University of New York’s College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York.

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Visit Timm’s Google Scholar Profile for a full list of publications.


Fisher, J.R.B., Acosta, E.A., Dennedy-Frank, P.J., Kroeger, T. & Boucher, T.M. (2017). Impact of satellite imagery spatial resolution on land use classification accuracy and modeled water quality. Remote Sens Ecol Conserv. doi: 10.1002/rse2.61


Bremer, L.L., Auerbach, D.A., Goldstein, J.H., Vogl, A.L., Shemie, D., Kroeger, T., Nelson, J.L., Benítez, S.P., Calvache, A., Guimarães, J., Herron, C., Higgins, J., Klemz, C., León, J., Sebastián Lozano, J., Moreno, P.H., Nuñez, F., Veiga, F. & Tiepolo, G. (2016). One size does not fit all: natural infrastructure investments within the Latin American Water Funds Partnership. Ecosystem Services, 17, 217–236.

McDonald, R., Kroeger, T., Boucher, T., Longzhu, W. & Salem, R. (2016). Planting healthy air: a global analysis of the role of urban trees in addressing particulate matter pollution and extreme heat. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.


Richardson, L., Loomis, J., Kroeger, T. & Casey, F. (2015). The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuation. Ecological Economics, Ecosystem Services Science, Practice, and Policy: Perspectives from ACES, A Community on Ecosystem Services, 115, 51–58.


Kroeger, T., Escobedo, F.J., Hernandez, J.L., Varela, S., Delphin, S., Fisher, J.R.B. & Waldron, J. (2014). Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone. PNAS, 111, E4204–E4213.

Kroeger, T. & Guannel, G. (2014). Fishery enhancement and coastal protection services provided by two restored Gulf of Mexico oyster reefs. In: Valuing Ecosystem Services. Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 334–358.


Kroeger, T. (2013). The quest for the “optimal” payment for environmental services program: ambition meets reality, with useful lessons. Forest Policy and Economics, 37, 65–74.


Abd-Elrahman, A., Adams, D., Borisova, T., Delphin, S., Escobedo, F., Frank, A., Kil, N., Kreye, M., Kroeger, T., Stein, T. & Timilsina, N. (2012). Final report – stewardship ecosystem services survey project. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Goldman-Benner, R.L., Benitez, S., Boucher, T., Calvache, A., Daily, G., Kareiva, P., Kroeger, T. & Ramos, A. (2012). Water funds and payments for ecosystem services: practice learns from theory and theory can learn from practice. Oryx, 46, 55–63.


Escobedo, F.J., Kroeger, T. & Wagner, J.E. (2011). Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2078–2087.


Kroeger, T. (2010). Black carbon emissions in Asia: sources, impacts, and abatement opportunities. USAID Regional Development Mission for Asia, Bangkok, Thailand.


Kroeger, T. (2009). Carbon debt and biofuels. In: Biofuels in Asia: an analysis of sustainability options. International Resources Group, pp. 36–39.


Loomis, J., Kroeger, T., Richardson, L. & Casey, F. (2008). A benefit transfer toolkit for fish, wildlife, wetlands, and open space. Western Economics Forum, 7, 33–43.


Haney, J.C., Kroeger, T., Casey, F., Quarforth, A., Schrader, G. & Stone, S. (2007). Wilderness discount on livestock compensation costs for imperiled gray wolf Canis lupus. In: Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: 8th World Wilderness Congress symposium (eds. Watson, A., Dean, L. & Sproull, J.). USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp. 141–151.

Kroeger, T. & Casey, F. (2007). An assessment of market-based approaches to providing ecosystem services on agricultural lands. Ecological Economics, 64, 321–332.

Tharakan, P.J., de Castro, J. & Kroeger, T. (2007). Energy sector assistance in developing countries: current trends and policy recommendations. Energy Policy, 35, 734–738.

Weiss, A.E., Kroeger, T., Haney, J.C. & Fascione, N. (2007). Social and ecological benefits of restored wolf populations. Transactions of the 72nd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, 297–319.


Kroeger, T. & Casey, F. (2006). Economic impacts of designating critical habitat under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: case study of the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis). Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 11, 437–453.