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Lizzie McLeod

Lizzie McLeod

Climate Adaptation Scientist

Lizzie is the Conservancy’s Climate Adaptation Scientist and works in the Asia Pacific region. She has spent the last decade focusing on the impacts of climate change on tropical marine ecosystems. She helped to develop TNC’s Reef Resilience toolkit, coordinates science for resilient marine protected area (MPA) network design (e.g., global climate change modeling, coral reef vulnerability assessments), and leads workshops to develop adaptation strategies for sea level rise and ocean acidification. She is currently focusing on expanding resilience principles to address other systems (mangroves, seagrasses, turtle nesting beaches) and working to integrate these into MPA planning and management. She develops tools and guidance for assessing the vulnerability of tropical marine ecosystems and coastal communities to increasing SSTs, sea level rise, and ocean acidification.

She completed her PhD at the University of Hawaii and has published extensively on building resilience into MPA design and management, climate change impacts on communities, and ecosystems (coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses), and modeling the impacts of sea level rise on coastal communities and habitats.




Mcleod, E., K.R.N. Anthony, A. Andersson, R. Beeden, Y. Golbuu, J. Kleypas, K. Kroeker, D. Manzello, R. Salm, H. Schuttenberg, and J.E. Smith. 2012. Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification: Lessons from coral bleaching. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. doi:10.1890/110240.

Mcleod, E., A. Green, E. Game, K. Anthony, J. Cinner, S.F. Heron, J. Kleypas, C.E. Lovelock, J.M. Pandolfi, R.L. Pressey, R. Salm, S. Schill, and C. Woodroffe. 2012. Integrating climate and ocean change vulnerability into conservation planning. Coastal Management 40: 651-672.

Rau, G.H., E. Mcleod, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2012. Ocean Conservation in a High CO2 World: The Need to Evaluate New Approaches. Nature Climate Change 2: 720-724.

Friedrich, T., A. Timmermann, A. Abe-Ouchi, N.R. Bates, M.O. Chikamoto, M.J. Church, J.E. Dore, D.K. Gledhill, M. Gonzales-Davila, M. Heinemann, T. Ilyina, J.H. Jungclaus, E. Mcleod, A. Mouchet, and J.M. Santana-Casiano. 2012: Detecting regional anthropogenic trends in ocean acidification against natural variability. Nature Climate Change, 2, 167-171.

Mcleod, E. 2012. Marine Protected Areas: Static Boundaries in a Changing World. In: Levin, S.A. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, New York.

McLeod, E., and K.R.N. Anthony. 2012. Ocean acidification—Management. In: Fogel, D., Fredericks, S., and Spellerberg, I. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Sustainability: Vol. 6. Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing.


Grantham, H.S., E. McLeod, A. Brooks, J. Hardcastle, A.J. Richardson, E. Poloczanska, T. Hills, T., S.D. Jupiter, N. Mieszkowska, C.J. Klein, and J.E.M. Watson. 2011. Ecosystem-based adaptation in marine ecosystems of tropical Oceania in response to climate change. Pacific Conservation Biology 17: 241-258.

Mcleod, E., G. Chmura, S. Bouillon, R. Salm, M. Bjork, C.M. Duarte, C.E. Lovelock, W.H. Schlesinger, and B. Silliman. 2011. A blueprint for blue carbon – toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 552–560.


Mcleod, E., R. Moffitt, A. Timmermann, R. Salm, L. Menviel, M. Palmer, and E. Selig. 2010. Vulnerability of coral reefs to warming seas and human activities in the Coral Triangle: Implications for marine protected area network design and management. Coastal Management 38(5): 518-539.

Mcleod, E. B. Poulter, J. Hinkel, E. Reyes, and R. Salm. 2010. Ocean and Coastal Management. Sea-level rise impact models and environmental conservation: A review of models and their applications. doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.06.009.

Mcleod, E., J. Hinkel, A.T. Vafeidis, R.J. Nicholls, N. Harvey, and R. Salm. 2010. Sea-level rise vulnerability in the countries of the Coral Triangle. Sustainability Science 5(2): 207-222.


McLeod, E., B. Szuster, and R. Salm. 2009. Sasi and Marine Conservation in Raja Ampat, Indonesia. Coastal Management 37(6):656-676.

Mcleod, E., R. Salm, A. Green, and J. Almany. 2009. Designing marine protected area networks to address the impacts of climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(7): 362-370.

Keller, B., D. Gleason, E. Mcleod, C. Woodley, S. Airame, B. Causey, A. Friedlander, R. Grober-Dunsmore, J. Johnson, S. Miller, and R. Steneck. 2009. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas. Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-009-9346-0.


McLeod, E., R.V. Salm, K. Anthony, B. Causey, E. Conklin, R. Feely, J. Guinotte, G. Hofmann, J. Hoffman, P. Jokiel, J. Kleypas, P. Marshall, and C. Veron. 2008. The Honolulu Declaration on Ocean Acidification and Reef Management. The Nature Conservancy, U.S.A., and IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Salm, R.V., and E. Mcleod. 2008. Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Resilience and MPA Management in Melanesia. In Climate Change and Biodiversity in Melanesia. Leisz, S.J., and B. Burnett (eds.). CCBM Paper 7. Bishop Museum Technical Report 42(7).

Keller, B.D., S. Airamé, B. Causey, A. Friedlander, D.F. Gleason, R. Grober- Dunsmore, J. Johnson, E. McLeod, S.L. Miller, R.S. Steneck, and C. Woodley, 2008: Marine Protected Areas. In: Preliminary review of adaptation options for climate sensitive ecosystems and resources. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research [Julius, S.H., J.M. West (eds.), J.S. Baron, B. Griffith, L.A. Joyce, P. Kareiva, B.D. Keller, M.A. Palmer, C.H. Peterson, and J.M. Scott (Authors)]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 8-1 to 8-95.

Björk, M., F. Short, E. Mcleod, and S. Beer. 2008. Managing seagrasses for resilience to climate change. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 56pp.


Salm, R.V. and E. McLeod. 2007. Building resilience into coral reef management. Pp.205-221 in Keller, B.D. and F.C. Wilmot (eds). 2007. Connectivity: science, people and policy in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Colloquium proceedings, 19-21 August 2004, Key West, FL. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series NMSP-07-xx. U.S.Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National
Marine Sanctuary Program, Silver Spring, MD. 272 pp.

Salm, R.V., and E. Mcleod. 2007. Komodo National Park, Indonesia. In: Colette, A (ed.). Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, pp. 38-39.


Mcleod, E. and R. Salm. 2006. Managing Mangroves for Resistance to Climate Change. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland: 64 pp.

Salm, R., T. Done, and E. Mcleod. 2006. Marine Protected Area Planning in a Changing Climate. Pp. 207-221 in J.T. Phinney, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong (eds). Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 61. American Geophysical Union: 244 pp.

Lizzie McLeod

Climate Adaptation Scientist

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