Autumn Olive Facts
Scientific Name: Elaeagnus umbellata
Type: deciduous, either shrub or tree
Size: up to 20 feet tall & 30 feet wide
Stems: silvery or golden brown; speckled; often with thorns
Leaves: grayish green with silvery scales on bottom side; has a shimmery look to it
Flowers: in clusters; bell-shaped, cream to light yellow petals; fragrant; bloom in April -June
Fruits: fleshy, silvery with brown scales to a speckled red when matured; edible to both animals and humans
Reproduction: by seed or propagation by stump sprouting and/or roots
Habitat: forests edges, meadows, open woods, pastures, riverbanks, roadsides, streams and disturbed areas
Impacts: invasive specie; increases nitrogen levels in soil; possibly beneficial to black walnut
Similar Native Species: Silver-berry; however, not native to Indiana
Information found on the USDA’s Invasive Plants Filed and Reference Guide.
Autumn Olive Alternatives
It has been recommended that autumn olive should not be planted in Indiana. IPSAWG suggests planting these native plants instead:
Blackhaw - Viburnum prunifolium
Black Chokeberry - Photinia melanocarpa
Dogwoods - Cornus sericea, C. amomum, C. racemosa
Northern Arrowwood - Viburnum dentatum
Serviceberry - Amelanchier arborea
Winterberry - Ilex verticillata
Good intentions gone bad. What a perfect way to describe the spreading of the invasive autumn olive throughout Indiana. Once thought as the best way to control erosion and provide wildlife habitat, it is now a major hassle.
The Invasive Autumn Olive
Autumn olive is a deciduous shrub that can grow as tall as 20 feet. Its cream to pale yellow flowers bloom in early spring and bring on an abundance of pink to red berries dotted with scales. The plants leaves are elliptically shaped with a slightly wavy margin. It is distinguished from other similar shrubs by the silvery scales found on the lower leaf surface. Although beautiful and fragrant, autumn olive’s aggressive proliferation negatively affects natural areas throughout Indiana.
The autumn olive is a native plant of China, Japan and Korea that made its way to the United States in 1830. In the 1950s it was widely promoted as a great way to provide wildlife habitat and erosion control in environmentally disturbed areas. Although it did make available habitat and food for wildlife, it soon became a major problem as autumn olive began to rapidly spread throughout the state. To make matters worse, attempts to remove the shrub by cutting and/or burning created even more autumn olive.
The Problem with Autumn Olive
Autumn olive is an invasive species that out-competes and displaces native plants by creating a dense shade that hinders the growth of plants that need lots of sun. It can produce up to 200,000 seeds each year, and can spread over a variety of habitats as its nitrogen-fixing root nodules allows the plant to grow in even the most unfavorable soils. Not to mention that it reproduces quickly and with little effort at all.
Birds are quite attracted to the seeds, and will scatter them throughout pastures, along roadsides and near fences. Even attempting to remove autumn olive by cutting or burning from your property can cause unwanted spreading as the shrub germinates easily.
What You Should Do About It
According to The Nature Conservancy, autumn olive is quickly becoming one of the most troublesome shrubs in central and eastern United States. High seed production, high germination rates and the sheer hardiness of the plant allows it to grow rapidly. Indiana’s Invasive Plant Species Assessment Work Group, or IPSAWG, has found that hand pulling autumn olive seedlings is an effective way to rid yourself of the plant. In fact, control efforts before fruiting will prevent the spread of seeds. If the plant is too big to pull, herbicides will be necessary to eradicate the plant from the general area of invasion. You will need to cut and apply herbicide to the trunk repeatedly, from summer through winter. Please make sure to read and follow the directions on the herbicide label precisely. For more specific information on what types of herbicide to use, check IPSAWG’s Fact Sheet on Autumn Olive.
Although it is not illegal to sell or buy autumn olive in Indiana, it is recommended that Hoosiers do not sell, buy or plant autumn olive, and to remove the invasive from your property. Remember - cutting and burning alone will not get rid of autumn olive, but will only create more.
For More Information
The Nature Conservancy's Six Easy Ways to Combat Invasive Species