Upper Manitou Forest Preserve

This preserve includes one of the best remaining examples of the "North Shore" in the Great Lakes, according to ecologists. It includes an old growth forest of sugar maple, yellow birch, white spruce and white cedar, some estimated at more than 300 years old and requiring the length of two or more persons' arms to circle their trunks. Old growth forests of this type and quality are reminders of the North Shore's natural heritage, and this is the largest example in private ownership.

The property also contains a black ash and cedar swamps, vernal pools and important aquatic habitats such as Art Lake and the Manitou River within its boundaries.

Lake County, northeast of Finland, Minnesota

2,450 acres

Why the Conservancy Selected This Site

The property is unique because people can experience forests in their natural self-sustaining condition--young trees grow in the openings created by the natural deaths of older trees. Ancient, decaying logs on the forest floor nurse seedling trees to life, securing a sustained source of autumn's brilliant colors. Forest fragmentation, fostered by second home development and unsustainable use, has changed other woodlands in the North Shore area.

Without large tracts of continuous forest, migratory songbirds and other species that represent ecosystem health are much less likely to survive. Old growth forests are very rare now and recognized as important laboratories for study on how forests function, providing useful information to foresters and researchers.

What the Conservancy Has Done/Is Doing
The Upper Manitou Forest Preserve represents a new approach to conservation in Northeast Minnesota. The Nature Conservancy is acquiring environmentally sensitive lands to preserve, maintain and restore habitats on these 2000+ acres, while using its science-based, non-confrontational approach to work with other key landowners in the area. For example, Lake County and the Conservancy are working together here on joint forest management and restoration projects. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and private landowners are participating in the effort as well. Meanwhile, the Conservancy will keep its lands open for traditional community uses including hunting. Currently, the Conservancy is compiling a forest inventory for the entire preserve. This work will produce a map of all forest types, and data on several ecosystem attributes from the heights of trees in the canopy to the type of vegetation growing on the forest floor.


Click to see the Upper Manitou Forest Preserve Map

Many partner organizations own and manage land in and around the region.

Back-country skiing is a great way to visit Upper Manitou Forest. This preserve is open to public hunting. For more information on visiting this and other Minnesota preserves, check out our Preserve Visitation Guidelines.

What to See: Plants
Upper Manitou Forest is filled with wondrous examples of sugar maple, yellow birch, white spruce and white cedar trees. The property also is home to exceptionally diverse fungi and uncommon plants, including Doll's eyes, bloodroot, and Carolina spring beauty.

What to See: Animals
Many large mammals, including moose, bear, and wolf use the habitats at the Upper Manitou Forest. Seeing these animals is possible, but much more probable, is spotting signs of their passing. Throughout the year a variety songbirds can be seen and heard in the forest as well. Of particular interest to birders are the spring and fall migrations when seasonal avian visitors can mean rare species sightings.


From Finland, MN take Lake County Route 7 towards the Crosby-Manitou State Park entrance. Continue approximately 2 miles past the park entrance to Earl West Road. The preserve boundary is approximately 3.5 miles up the Earl West Road and marked by a TNC preserve sign. Please note and respect private property on the preserve's borders. Earl West Road passes through private property and is impassable to vehicles during most winters, spring thaw, and after prolonged rain.


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