The Tennessee chapter has made the preservation of cave ecosystems one of its highest priorities—and for good reason. Tennessee has more caves than any other state, with more than 10,000. In fact, 20% of the known caves in the U.S. are in Tennessee! The Nature Conservancy directs the leading cave protection program in Tennessee.
Creatures in the Dark
Nearly 1,000 species, mostly crustaceans, insects and arachnids, live exclusively in caves within the lower 48 states. The Nature Conservancy considers 95 percent of all cave creatures in the United States to be vulnerable or imperiled. However, the federal government has not extended the protection of the Endangered Species Act to most of these cave creatures, even though they are highly vulnerable.
Subterranean systems are linked to the surface by sinkholes and other entrances. Cave-adapted species, such as cave crayfish, depend upon the surface for clean water and organic debris that serves as a food source for small invertebrates. Alterations to the landscape above a system, or within the water recharge area of a cave, can affect both the quality of water within the cave and the amount of food input to the system.
Bats are another important protection target for The Nature Conservancy. They are especially sensitive to disturbances in caves. Caves serve as hibernation hideaways for many kinds of bats, including gray bats and Indiana bats (both listed as endangered species and both found in Tennessee). They form large colonies numbering in the thousands and sometimes the tens of thousands.
Waking bats during hibernation causes them to use up energy that they have stored to survive the winter often leading to their death. During the summer, some bats will again form large colonies in caves. Disturbing summer maternity colonies can cause the death of flightless young bats when they are knocked from the walls to the floor by panicked mothers. The Conservancy works with partners to monitor bat populations at caves across Tennessee.