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Timm Kroeger

Timm Kroeger

Senior Environmental Economist

Dr. Kroeger is the senior environmental economist in The Nature Conservancy’s Central Science department. His work focuses on the measurement and economic valuation of the benefits people derive from nature; the incorporation of these values into cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and social return-on-investment analyses of conservation and environmental quality projects; and the application of incentive-based mechanisms in general, and payment for ecosystem services in particular, to the conservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Before joining The Nature Conservancy in 2009, Timm was an environmental economist with Defenders of Wildlife’s Conservation Economics Program and worked as a consultant on bio-energy issues and black carbon emissions and control options in Asia; human health benefits from reductions in outdoor air pollution in Lima, Peru; the economic aspects of air pollution control measures in major cities throughout Peru and in Guayaquil, Ecuador; and the assessment of potential environmental impacts from a proposed mining operation in northern Peru. 

Timm holds an MA in Economics from the University of Würzburg (Germany) and a Ph.D. in Environmental Studies from the State University of New York’s College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York.



Kroeger, T, FJ Escobedo, JL Hernandez, S Varela, S Delphin, JRB Fisher and J Waldron. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone. PNAS Plus. 11(10): E4204-E4213. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1409785111

Kroeger, T. and G. Guannel. 2014. Fishery enhancement and coastal protection services provided by two restored Gulf of Mexico oyster reefs. Pp. 334-357 in: K. Ninan (ed.), Valuing Ecosystem Services-Methodological Issues and Case Studies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 464 pp.

Richardson, L., J. Loomis, T. Kroeger and F. Casey. 2014. The role of benefit transfer in ecosystem service valuation. Ecological Economics http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.02.018


Kroeger, T. 2013. The quest for the "optimal" payment for environmental services program: Ambition meets reality, with useful lessons. Forest Policy and Economics 37:65-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2012.06.007


Abd-Elrahman, A., D. Adams, T. Borisova, S. Delphin, F. Escobedo, A. Frank, N. Kil, M. Kreye, T. Kroeger, T. Stein and N. Timilsina. 2012. Final Report – Stewardship Ecosystem Services Survey Project. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Gainesville: University of Florida. July 2012. 142 pp.

Goldman, R.L., S. Benitez, A. Calvache, G. Daily, P. Kareiva, T. Kroeger and A. Ramos. 2012. Water funds and Payments for ecosystem services: Practice learns from theory and theory can learn from practice. ORYX 46(1):55-63.J


Escobedo, F., T. Kroeger and J. Wagner. 2011. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environmental Pollution 159:2078-2087.


Kroeger, T. 2010. Black Carbon Emissions in Asia: Sources, Impacts, and Abatement Opportunities. Contractor report prepared by International Resources Group for USAID, ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program. Bangkok Thailand: USAID Regional Development Mission for Asia. April 2010. 63 pp.


Kroeger, T. 2009. Carbon debt and biofuels. In Biofuels in Asia: An Analysis of Sustainability Options. Report prepared by International Resources Group for USAID, ECO-Asia Clean Development and Climate Program. March 2009. Pp. 36-39.


Loomis, J., T. Kroeger, L. Richardson and F. Casey. 2008. A benefit transfer toolkit for fish, wildlife, wetlands and open space. Western Economics Forum 7(2):33-43.


Weiss, A.E., T. Kroeger, J.C. Haney and N. Fascione. 2007. Social and ecological benefits of restored wolf populations. Transactions of the 72nd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Washington, DC: Wildlife Management Institute. Pp. 297-319.

Kroeger, T. and F. Casey. 2007. An assessment of market-based approaches for providing ecosystem services on agricultural lands. Ecological Economics 64(2):321-332.

Tharakan, P.J., J. Castro and T. Kroeger. 2007. Energy sector assistance in developing countries: Current trends and policy recommendations. Energy Policy 35(1):734-38.

Haney, J.C., T. Kroeger, F. Casey, A. Quarforth, G. Schrader and S. Stone. 2007. Wilderness discount on livestock compensation costs for imperiled gray wolf Canis lupus. (A. Watson, L. Dean, and J. Sproull, Eds.). Pp. 141-151 in Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: 8th World Wilderness Congress symposium. Proc. RMRS-P-49, Fort Collins, CO. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.


Kroeger, T. and F. Casey. 2006. The economic impacts of designating critical habitat under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: Case study of the Canada Lynx (Lynx Canadensis). Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11(6):437-53.

Timm Kroeger

Senior Environmental Economist


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