Scientists Locate Natural “Strongholds” that Could Protect Nature in the Face of Climate Change

Work continues to locate more climate-resilient landscapes across the United States

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Natural Stronghold

The Central Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia are an excellent example of a natural “stronghold” that could protect nature in the face of climate change.

June 04, 2012

A new study by The Nature Conservancy has identified a series of landscapes across the American Northeast and southeastern Canada that are predicted to withstand the growing impacts of climate change and help ensure nature’s survival.

As droughts, rising temperatures and other climate impacts threaten to destabilize natural areas across the United States and around the world, scientists believe these resilient landscapes will be strong enough to continue providing habitat to a wide variety of plants and animals while also serving as sources of clean drinking water, fertile soils and other important services people rely upon for survival. The authors of the study, however, warned that these natural strongholds must be protected from damaging development, pollution and other negative actions, or they could lose their ability to shield nature from climate impacts.

“This news gives us hope that – with a little help – nature can endure climate change,” said Mark Anderson, Eastern Division Science Director for The Nature Conservancy. “If we work to keep these special landscapes strong, they will help keep nature strong.”

Anderson added: “These strongholds will be critical to all life as the threats of climate change continue to grow. They could serve as breeding grounds and seed banks for many animal and plant species that otherwise may be unable to find habitat due to climate change. They could also serve as essential resources for food and water as society deals with the threats of climate change.”

The study analyzed 156 million acres of land stretching from Virginia to Maine and into adjacent portions of Canada. Scientists looked at individual landscapes – such as forests, wetlands and mountain ranges – as collections of neighborhoods in which plants and animals could live. Areas with the most “complex” neighborhoods – those with diverse topographies, geologies and elevation ranges – were estimated to offer the greatest potential for plant and animal species to “move down the block” and find new homes as climate change alters their traditional neighborhoods.

Among the most resilient landscapes found by the study were limestone flats in northern Maine and nearby areas of Canada; floodplains in northeastern New York; coastal plains with oak-pine forests in New Jersey and Virginia; and highland forests in West Virginia. The Appalachian Mountain chain that runs through Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia and Tennessee was found to be especially important for helping nature survive climate impacts.

The study also looked at the “permeability of landscapes” – whether roads, dams, development or other fragmenting features have created barriers that prevent plants and animals from moving into new neighborhoods. Together, that collection of diverse environmental settings and the ability for local movement define a landscape’s resiliency.

The study also identified important corridors that link these resilient landscapes together.

“It’s not enough to have separate islands of these climate-resilient landscapes,” said Anderson. “We must make sure that corridors connect them together. To survive the changing climate, some species will be able to relocate to local neighborhoods while others will need to move great distances to entirely new landscapes. Just as people use roads to move from town to town, we need to make sure species have a way to move from one landscape to another.”

But Anderson added: “Unfortunately there will be many species that will not be able to relocate as climate change makes their neighborhoods unlivable. That is why the ultimate goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and stop climate change impacts from worsening. Until that happens, these resilient landscapes offer a much needed safety net to allow many species to survive, interact and ensure healthy natural systems.”

Scientists for The Nature Conservancy are now conducting similar studies across the United States to identify other natural strongholds that have the potential to withstand impacts of climate change. Already the study is being used by government agencies and others to create a roadmap of where conservation activities should take place.

"As we work to manage some of America's most iconic lands, it's critical to know which natural systems are going to be most resilient to large-scale changes like climate change," said Clyde Thompson, supervisor of the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia. "Information from this research can help our management and restoration decisions support the conservation of our nation's heritage."

The study was funded by The Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, The Northeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, and The Nature Conservancy.

“We are excited about this cutting-edge work by The Nature Conservancy and have begun to use it to guide our land conservation grant-making," said Andrew Bowman, program director for the environment at the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. "In an era of accelerating climate change and scarce dollars for land conservation, this work will be very helpful to us and others in selecting the most important places to protect.”

View the study here.

The Nature Conservancy is a leading conservation organization working around the world to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends. Visit The Nature Conservancy on the web at To learn about the Conservancy’s global initiatives, visit To keep up with current Conservancy news, follow @nature_press on Twitter.

Contact information

Randy Edwards
The Nature Conservancy in West Virginia

Karen Foerstel
Director of Marketing, North America Region
(347) 689-3548

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