Scientific name: Bubo virginianus
Height: 1.5 – 2 feet
Wing span: 4 - 5 feet
Tail length: 7 – 10 inches
Weight: (average) male: 3 lbs
female: 4 lbs
Characteristics: big, yellow eyes; orange facial disk with black outline; long tufts of hair, white throat; dark barring on body
Differences in sexes: plumages is the same but females are larger in size
Habitat: adapted to various environments and climates; dense woodlands, canyons, deserts and plains to name a few
Range: found all over North America, Central America and in certain regions of South America
Diet: bird of prey; small – medium sized mammals, amphibians, birds, fish and reptiles
Reproduction: breeding season occurs between January – February; average 2-3 eggs, up to 5 per season
Conservation status: vigorous population; protected as a migratory bird
*Animal Diversity Web.
Though Great Horned Owls are a species of "least concern,” they are protected under the Migratory Bird Act.
The Migratory Bird Act protects all species that are listed from removal, hunting and commercial trade. All nests, feathers and eggs are also protected under this law.
A wise old owl lived in an oak
The more he saw, the less he spoke
The less he spoke, the more he heard
Why can't we all be like that wise old bird?
The Great Horned Owl, the most powerful of the common owls, is a stunning creature. Its big, yellow eyes are often compared to those of a cat, and are amplified by an orange facial disk outlined in black. The coloring of its body – hues of browns and grays with black bar markings – allow its white throat to show prominently. Distinguished by its large size (its wingspan is 4 - 5 feet from tip to tip) and its feather tufts resembling horns (and often mistaken for its ears), it isn’t hard to see why this grand bird stands out from the rest.
Owls are mostly nocturnal creatures that can, at times, be spotted in the late afternoon or early morning. Like most owls, the Great Horned has keen hearing and sharp vision in low light, both adaptations for hunting at night. An owl can not only see what is right in front of it, but can turn its head over halfway around to see what is behind it. Its hooked beak does not interfere with its binocular vision, which helps determine the distance of its prey.
Owls also catch their prey by using their sense of hearing. Their large ears are covered by special feathers and are located behind the facial dish feathers. These feathers allow the owl to hear even the smallest sound (like a mouse squeaking) up to 900 feet away.
The Great Horned Owl is a fierce hunter that prefers the sit-and-wait approach. Watching from a perch above, the owl will quietly swoop down on passing prey and seize its meal. The talons of this owl can extend to a size of 4x8 inches and can close down on its prey with the force of almost thirty pounds. Its wing feathers are comb-like with a soft fringe that helps reduces the sound of air rushing through them; as such the Great Horned Owl is more apt to glide than flap its wings. Such a maneuver makes it almost impossible for prey to hear it advance.
Great Horned owls start nesting in January, raising their families in the dead of winter. The female will incubate the eggs while her mate brings her food. Within a month, up to five eggs will hatch and the owlets will be closely guarded by their parents. Six weeks after hatching, the owlets will leave the nest and walk around. In another three weeks, the young owls with already have learned to fly. The parents will continue to feed and care for their offspring for several months, often as late as October. It is wise to stay away from young owls and their nests as Great Horned Owls are not afraid to attack if they feel their family is threatened.
There aren't many birds or mammals that prey on the Great Horned Owl, but it does have its threats. Like most species, man plays a role in threatening the population of Great Horned owls. Loss of habitat through urban sprawl decreases the owl’s nesting and hunting territories. Certain agricultural practices such as the use of insecticides and pesticides can harm owls that feed on the insects and rodents, reducing their natural food supply.
The call of the Great Horned owl is a classic sound of the wild and can be heard from miles away. The sounds made by the owl vary with its mood and temperament. When calling for its mate, it makes a "who hoo, who hoo" sound. If aggravated, the owl will "clack" with its beak. Young owls will "shriek" or scream for attention.
Videos of our fine feathered friend can be found on YouTube and on the Internet Bird Collection.